The Monpas of Bhutan are yet billed as primitive, unchanged, isolated, remote and little known even in Bhutan. They are a reminder as to why Tibetan called these as Monpas and Bhutan a Monyul. They still maintain their faith in Bon, rarely practiced belief now. These are the people who gave Bhutan their first civilization. Their occupational patterns as hunters, food gatherers, weavers and shifting cultivators represent the initial mode of human adjustment with the nature. This paper provides the background details regarding the Monpas, associated with economic and demographic changes and development responses.The present investigation is based mainly on primary information pertaining to general demographic background, land ownership pattern, occupational engagements, educational and other socioeconomic attainments. Despite a long term neglect and development backlogs, the Monpas are undergoing socioeconomic transformation with increasing exposure to the outside world.