We performed an experiment to examine the effects of shadowing on listening comprehension of texts. We explored whether the effects differ depending on individual differences in working memory capacity compared with listening for advanced Chinese students learning Japanese. The results showed that the shadowing effects on comprehension and memory of texts vary depending on the learner’s working memory capacity. On the one hand, shadowing facilitated memorization of meaning for learners with a large working memory capacity and understanding the situation model was comparable to listening. On the other hand, learners with a small working memory capacity did not experience the effect of promoting semantic memory and shadowing was less likely for comprehension of the situation model than listening. The results of this study suggest that listening comprehension and memory in a second language differ depending on the combination of listening method and working memory capacity.