The current study sought to analyze the theory and practices of Rika (school science) in the lower (from the 1st to 3rd) grades at the Elementary School Attached to Hiroshima Higher Normal School (HHNS) from 1911 to 1919. I examined the objectives, teaching methods, and practices of Rika in the lower grades at HHNS during the study period. The results revealed several consistent objectives: to familiarize children with nature (shizen) around them, to make children know and understand the relationship between nature and human society, to establish a fundamental conception of natural things and phenomena, to cultivate the power of observation, to cultivate interest and a spirit of inquiry for natural and human social things and phenomena, and to develop a love of nature in the minds of children. In addition, the analysis revealed that teaching methods were to encourage children to observe and undertake experiments with natural things and phenomena by themselves. Teachers taught Rika using local natural and human social things and phenomena. It should be noted that the theory and practices of Rika from 1911 to 1919 were based on a Japanese traditional view of Rika, with some influence of the educational theory and practices of Germany and USA. Moreover, teachers at HHNS taught Rika in the lower grades in a way that suited the conditions of children and the local environment. The theory and practices of Rika between 1911 and 1919 were later adopted to teach Rika in the lower grades from 1931 to 1940 at HHNS.