The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of the music education in the curriculums which emphasized the connection between kindergarten and elementary school. Target curriculums are “The Kindergarten Curriculum, Kindergarten ‒First Grade‒ Curriculum”, and “A Conduct Curriculum for the Kindergarten and First Grade”. These curriculums were established in the early 20th century and made based on the idea of progressive education. As a result of comparative examination of these curriculums, the following characteristics of the music education of the curriculums became clear: (1) Aiming to develop social skills through music activities, (2) Training singing skills by dividing the class members into small groups based on pitch discrimination abilities and coaching individually, (3) Placing a high value on children’s self-motivation to cultivate the attitude to enjoy music by thinking and expressing by themselves. These curriculums indicated kindergarten teachers the necessity to educate intellectual aspects such as singing skills through music activities, and introduced some methods. At the same time, these curriculums showed primary school teachers possibilities of teaching intelligence aspects such as musical knowledge in playing.