The aim of this article is to clarify the role of textbooks in social studies to promote relationship to society through comparing the methods of textbooks analysis between Hess and Ravitch. Diana Hess emphasizes critical relationship to society through learning of social issues with deliberations. Diane Ravitch emphasizes relationship to society through learning to get knowledge and the sense of values that should be shared as a member of communities. Results of comparing their methods are below: 1) Hess places textbooks as "medium" leading to various learning activity. Textbook has a role to open knowledge and the sense of values of children; 2) Ravitch places textbooks as education "contents" that are learned directly by children. Textbook has a role to close knowledge and the sense of values of children. These results suggest that differences of theories of social studies to promote relationship to society become clear.