Enabling children to develop knowledge and ideas about nature by utilizing process skills has been a major objective of the elementary science in the Indonesian Curriculum 1994. The present research is carried out to investigate how the Indonesian and Japanese science curricula and textbooks set the process skills. The curricula were analyzed on the basis of substance of process skills. The textbooks were analyzed on the basis of basic skills and integrated skills involvement in their hands-on activity sections. Present research findings indicated that: (1) the objective of Indonesian Curriculum 1994 does not set the substance of process skills; (2) the objective of Japanese Curriculum 1998 sets the substance of process skills; (3) Indonesian textbooks primarily emphasize basic skills in all grade's levels; (4) Japanese textbooks emphasize basic skills in the 3rd grade and integrated skills in the 4th, 5th and 6th grades.