The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of job-hunting self-efficacy and job self-efficacy on the teaching aspirations of students in teacher-education courses, using Social Cognitive Career Theory. A questionnaire was distributed to 129 university students (84 second-year students and 45 third-year students) enrolled in a teacher-training course. Analyses showed the following: 1) the influence of job-hunting self-efficacy on students’ teaching aspirations was greater than that of job self-efficacy, and 2) the influence of job-hunting self-efficacy on teaching aspirations differed between underclassmen and upperclassmen. Specifically, third-year students’ job-hunting self-efficacy affected their teaching aspirations. However, there was no such effect for the second-year students.