The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan focused on the next four points in order to develop teachers' competences and abilities. (1)Establishment of "the model of a teacher who learns through her/his career in order to acquire a professional achievement". (2) To advance teacher training from graduate level to master degree level. (3) Cooperation between boards of education, schools and Universities. (4) Promotion of research in the field of learning science and forming curriculum. Also, the following three points are suggested in these educational reforms. Firstly, society is improved through teachers' advanced competences and abilities. Secondly, advanced teacher training in University and school is needed to improve teachers' competences and abilities. Thirdly, Universities must participate in teacher training systematically in order to achieve the above two points. Hiroshima University conducted research on the advancement of teachers' competences and abilities under the commission of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (2012). We focused on this question; what are the competences and abilities that are needed for teachers? We conducted questionnaire research in order to clarify the components of teachers' competences and abilities. This paper shows a part of our research.