The purpose of this paper was to consider new methodology for the study of learning group on the physical education according to the activity theory. In this paper, I mainly examined three theoretical frameworks. Those were the "sociocultural approach" of J. V. Wertsch, the "discourse analysis" of Y. Shoy, and the "activity system" of Y. Engeström. First, the necessity to pay attention to the sense of speech was suggested by the theoretical framework of the "sociocultural approach" of J. V. Wertsch. Secondly, the theoretical framework of the "dual mediated action" and the methodology of the "discourse analysis" of Y. Shoy suggested the possibility that we could consider the sociocultural context in the class, and that the learning activity could be interpreted as the interchange of cognition and communication. Thirdly, the methodology of the "activity system" of Y. Engeström suggested that not only the learning activity about cognition and communication could be interpreted as the "activity system" including the elements of "subject", "tools", "object", "rules", "community", and "division of labor", but also, teachers' educational activities could be developed according to the procedure which included the analysis of the "internal contradiction" and the design of a new activity system.