The purpose of this study is to review the history of research on the use of intelligence tests and developmental tests in early childhood education and care in Japan and to examine the improvements and changes in early childhood education and care that have been brought about by the use of these tests. Furthermore, we examine Alfred Binet’s views on children and education, and consider whether there are differences in the ways in which the tests are used between the period when Binet’s views reached Japan and the present day to discuss how best to use these tests in the future. The research review revealed that 152 papers have been published on this topic to date. It was found that the period from the 1950s to the 1980s was one of “searching test utilization,” while that from the 1990s to 2010 was one of “utilization in the field of disabled child education.” In addition, it was suggested that between the 1950s and 2010, the target was extended from individuals to groups and the way of using the test result changed from teaching directly to children to approaching nursing environment. It was also found that the tests were used to adapt early childhood education and care programs to meet the needs of each child. In the future, it will be necessary to use tests that combine intuitive observation with objective data.