Building on previous studies, this study clarifies research trends and elucidates issues for future inquiries into novice early childhood education and care (ECEC) teachers in Japan. Two concerns regarding this topic have emerged in recent years: the number of resignations of novice ECEC teachers and their human resource development (HRD). Previous studies published in Japan since 2012 examining resignations by novice ECEC teachers, the difficulties they face, and their HRD were reviewed, resulting in the following findings. First, 25% of novice ECEC teachers resign from their jobs within the first year. While other factors are also involved, often in complex ways, interpersonal relationships in the workplace are the major factor. Second, novice ECEC teachers are uncomfortable with clerical work, education- and childcare-related challenges, workplace human relations, and communication with parents. Meanwhile, senior ECEC teachers do not fully recognize the discomfort experienced by novice ECEC teachers. Further, whether the novice ECEC teachers are likely to receive support in addressing their concerns depends on the number of children in the nursery school. Third, novice ECEC teachers are offered four types of HRD: transmission, programs, discussion, and mentoring. However, these types of HRD face three problems: finding the necessary time, consideration of the individual growth process of the novice ECEC teacher, and interactions between novice and senior ECEC teachers. Thus, three future research directions are indicated: consideration of the features of the environment faced by novice ECEC teachers (age of the children in their charge, the class system, and the number of children in the group); awareness of differences in recognition between novice and senior ECEC teachers; and the nature of interactions between novice and senior teachers.