The purpose of this study is to examine Vygotsky's work, "The History of the Development of Higher Mental Functions" (1931) from defectological perspective. L. S. Vygotsky (1896-1934) was an early twentieth-century Russian psychologist who have researched about the development and education of normal and abnormal children. It has been recognized that this work was one of the most important literature of Cultural-Historical theory. On the other hand, little attention has been given to defectological aspects to "The History of the Development of Higher Mental Functions". In this work, Vygotsky argued not only the development of normal children but also the development of deaf and blind intellectual disability children. He employed the comparative psychological approaches for his developmental theories. He has examined distinction and each features of the normal child development and the disabled development. It is his assertion that a fundamental methodological view according to which the essence and nature of the phenomena studied by psychology can be revealed in their purest form in the extreme, pathological forms. The key to psychology is in defectology. "The History of the Development of Higher Mental Functions" is the work about the general development of children, the Cultural-Historical theories that not only for normal children but for disabled children.