中国の大学における学内居住方式の起源と展開 : 日中比較の観点から <論稿>
DaigakuRonshu_23_49.pdf 2.62 MB
The Origin and Development of the Form of On-campus Dwelling at Chinese Higher Education Institutions
One of the unique features in the eye's of Japanese observers visiting Chinese universities and colleges is the fact that most of the teaching and administrative staff, as well as all students, live on campus. Consequently, the campus functions not only as a center for learning and research, but also for living. This paper intends to make clear the origin and developments thereafter of this unique feature of Chinese universities and colleges with some comparative notes between China and Japan.
At the pre-modern institutions of higher learning in China (Tai-xue, Guozijian, etc.), students were generally required to live in domitories and faculty members also sometimes lived on campus during some eras, such as Ming and Qing Dynasty. Not only public institutions, but private academies called "Shuyuan", were places where both teachers or masters and students or disciples lived together and pursuited their studies. On the other hand, on-campus dwellings were not general practice at Japanese pre-modern institutions of higher learning, although students were required to live in domitories at so-called "Daigakuryo", which were formed under the strong influence of the school system of the Tang Dynasty. At some private academies (shijuku) as well as a few domain schools in Japan, disciples lived within the academy, but most of the institutions, including Tokugawa Confucian Academy (Shoheiko), did not necessarily require their students to dwell on campus.
At the early modern institutions of higher learning in China, campus dwelling was recognized as a custom of educational significance and was preserved. However, mainly due to the shortage of financial resources in the years of the Republic of China the on-campus dwelling severely decreased. At the modern Japanese institutions of higher learning in the early Meiji period, on-campus dwelling was adopted in the intial stage but soon relinquished. It has been never accepted widely. The only exception in both China and Japan were the normal schools, where on-campus dwelling was rigourously preserved.
Thus, the on-campus dwelling diminished even in China. However, it was revived under the severe living conditions during the war in China. Particularly in the so-called liberated areas under the communist regime students were supplied with clothes, foods as well as residence, although all were poor, minimum quality. The government of the People's Republic of China, inheriting the many ways and practices in the liberated area kept on adopting the form of on-campus dwelling at the insitutions of higher education in the new state. It was the requisite for opening the university door to the peasant and proletariate students and also the most favorable way to carry out the ideological indoctorination effectively within universities and colleges.
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