Vākyapadīya「〈能成者〉詳解」（Sādhanasamuddeśa）の研究 : VP 3.7.148–150:＜基体＞（adhikaraṇa）論（1）
A Study of the Sādhanasamuddeśa of the Vākyapadīya: VP 3.7.148–150—A locus (adhikaraṇa) (1)
A 1.4.45ādhāro ’dhikaraṇam provides that a kāraka which serves as a locus of an action (ādhāra) is assigned the class name adhikaraṇa ‘locus’. In the Sādhanasamuddeśa of his Vākyapadīya, Bhartṛhari devotes eight kārikās to dealing with this kāraka (VP3.7.148–155). The present paper aims at considering the first three kārikās, in which the fundamental concept of adhikaraṇa is lucidly explained.
VP 3.7.148 (kartṛkarmavyavahitām asākṣād dhārayat kriyām / upakurvat kriyāsiddhau śāstre ’dhikaraṇ aṃsmṛtam // ) states: “[A kāraka] which, rendering service [to an agent (kartṛ) or an object (karman)] (upakurvat), holds an action (kriyā) indirectly (asākṣāt) through the intermediary (vyavahita) of the agent or the object is handed down, in grammar, as adhikaraṇa with respect to the accomplishment of the action (kriyāsiddhi).”
First of all, in grammar an entity which is called adhikaraṇa is a kāraka, so that it is what holds an action. In everyday usage the term adhikaraṇa is used to refer to what holds a substance (dravya) or a quality (guṇa) as well. The holder of an action is twofold: direct and indirect. What directly (sākṣāt) holds an action is an agent (kartṛ) or an object (karman). According to Bhartṛhari, who states VP 3.8.15 (anantaraṃ phalaṃ yasyāḥ kalpate tāṃ kriyāṃ viduḥ / pradhānabhūtām. tādarthyād anyāsāṃ tu tadākhyatā // ), an agent holds an action, a composite of component actions, that is conducive to a principal action, immediately after which a result (phala) is produced, while an object holds the principal action, which is metaphorically called a result. It is to be noted that Bhartṛhari defines karman as kriyāviṣaya. When an object is said to hold an action, it is meant that the object is a viṣaya of the action which is metaphorically called a result. What holds an action indirectly through the intermediary of such an agent or object is assigned the class name adhikaraṇa.
According to Patañjali (MBh on A 6.1.72), there are three types of adhikaraṇas: vyāpaka ‘comprehensive’, aupaśleṣika ‘caused by contact’, and vaiṣayika ‘caused by a domain’. In VP 3.7.149 (upaśleṣasya cābhedas tilākāśakaṭādiṣu / upakārās tu bhidyante saṃyogisamavāyinām // ) Bhartṛhari refers to the following instances:  tileṣu tailam [asti] ‘The oil is in the sesame seeds’ (vyāpaka);  kaṭe devadatta āste ‘Devadatta is sitting on the mat’ (aupaśleṣika);  khe śakunayaḥ [santi] ‘The birds are in the sky’ (vaiṣayika). Bhartṛhari argues that connection (upaśleṣa) does not vary among these three types of adhikaraṇas, which amounts to saying that there holds the locus-locatee relation (ādhārādheyabhāva) in any of the three. It is postulated that a kāraka called adhikaraṇa has this relation to an action. Accordingly, what Bhartṛhari means by the term upaśleṣa must be the locus-locatee relation between the kāraka in question and an agent or an object. The connection is determined by inherence in , by contact in , and by neither of them in . When entity x, in connection with entity y, holds y, x renders service (upakāra) to y. The service differs from case to case. In VP 3.7.50 (avināśo gurutvasya pratibandhe svatantratā / digviśeṣād avaccheda ityādyā bhedahetavah. // ) Bhartṛhari states: the sesame seeds help the oil not to be destructed; the mat helps to support the weight of Devadatta; the sky helps the birds not to fall down from a specific region of the sky.
It is important to note that, according to Pāṇinīyas, the term viṣaya in the vaiṣayika means ananyatrabh āva or anyatrābhāva ‘not being anywhere else’. When entity x is said to be the viṣaya of entity y, the following both hold: (1) y is not established as such elsewhere than x; (2) y is established as such in dependence on x. Thus x is the domain where y is established as such.
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