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ID 45579
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title alternative
Social Consideration on Waste Picking Children in the Developing Countries <Research Note>
creator
Miyake, Hiroyuki
subject
バングラデシュ
廃棄物管理
社会配慮
有価廃棄物回収児童
児童労働
NGO
Bangladesh
waste management
social consideration
waste picking children
child labor
NDC
Economics
Society
abstract
途上国の廃棄物管理においては,本来,重要な問題となっている社会配慮的側面が軽視されがちである。社会配慮的側面を構成するのは,清掃人・清掃業への偏見と差別の除去,有価廃棄物回収人のフォーマル化,環境教育の普及による市民啓発,及び地区内廃棄物管理のグッド・ガバナンスである。本稿では,有価廃棄物回収労働に焦点をあて,まず,Scheinberg(2012)の研究業績を基に,研究者が有価廃棄物回収労働をどのような視点から捉えてきたかを歴史的に類型化した。1990 年代以降現れてきた社会的アプローチ,開発アプローチ,統合アプローチ,企業的アプローチなどである。そこには,有価廃棄物労働やそれの従事者を経済的にも社会的にも積極的に評価する動きが出てきていることがわかる。
次に,2015年に筆者が南ダカ市で行った有価廃棄物回収に携わる就労児童の実態調査の結果を分析し,その特徴を抽出した。就労児童が入学資格を持つという,NGO経営のUCEP学校が位置する地域には有価廃棄物回収児童は多いが,学校に通っているため,労働時間と収入は少ないこと,同時に,多くの児童はUCEP 以外の学校に入学したものの,中途退学している事実,この労働は仕方なくやっていて将来は他の仕事に携わりたいことなどが確認できた。児童の時から廃棄物回収には嫌悪感を抱いていることが理解できる。児童労働をなくすためには教育が重要になってくるが,最後に就労児童やストリート・チルドレンに生活権を保障し,教育を行っているNGO の活動を紹介し,政府の児童労働やストリート・チルドレン対策が乏しい状況下で,今後,そのようなNGO がどのような動きをしているのかにも触れた。
abstract
Dhaka, a capital of Bangladesh, is developing economically at a high speed as other Asian bigger cities. It leads to the increase of production, consumption and waste generation. The increase of waste needs proper waste management. In the waste management in developing countries, an approach of social consideration is very important. But, the number of researchers or experience business persons holding such opinion is limited. Approach of social condition contains (1) removal of discrimination, and prejudice on cleaners and cleaning job, (2) formalization of waste pickers, (3) local governance in locality and (4) environmental education. This article focuses on waste pickers and waste picking children.
Academic approach started by C. Furedey in the late 1980s lead to a development approach and an integration approach in 1990s and 2000s. JICA tries to introduce formalization of waste picker. On the other hand, a child labor is prohibited in terms of labor law. In reality, there are still children who work as waste picker, although the number is decreasing. According to results of my survey on waste picking children, most of them have had experiences to go to school. Due to the increase of absence and harassment /violence by teachers, many children were forced to be dropped out or quit from school. But, children of UCEP school goes to school to study joyfully. Waste picking children who go to school is limited to the area, so called, of cleaners’ colony. Their working hour is shorter than non school going children and their incomes get smaller. Most of waste picking children refused to continue this kind of works in future because of negative impressions like shame and discrimination.
At the last chapter, two NGOs are introduced as bodies to reduce child labor or street children. They are Ekmatra and UCEP. Founders of both bodies were foreigners, who have provided an opportunity of joyful leaning and training, are running vocational schools. In this way, they try to decrease the number of child labor or street children. But, it is not enough. Because, it cannot cover the children who need to work for families facing acute poverty. Therefore, we need to look for a holistic approach including waste picking works of safety guaranteed and labor condition improved.
description
本稿は平成27年度~29年度科学研究費補助金基盤研究(C)「途上国の廃棄物管理事業における社会配慮分野項目間の相互連関システムの構築」(研究代表者:三宅博之,課題番号15K00660)の成果の一部である。
journal title
Journal of contemporary India studies : space and society, Hiroshima University
issue
Issue 8
start page
41
end page
56
date of issued
2018-03
publisher
広島大学現代インド研究センター
issn
2185-8721
ncid
language
jpn
nii type
Departmental Bulletin Paper
HU type
Departmental Bulletin Papers
DCMI type
text
format
application/pdf
text version
publisher
rights
Copyright (c) 2018 広島大学現代インド研究センター
department
The Center for Contemporary India Studies at Hiroshima University
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