Enculturation Model of Nationalism at Elementary Schools Based on the Character Education in Semarang City, Central Java Province, Indonesia
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Indonesian nationalism is an ideology agreed among the Indonesian political elites. The ideology was internalized in all Indonesians through several ways, especially in education. Until the end of Suharto era, nationalism was very strong and learned by the students in all level of education. History and civics education were the main subject matter which forced the nationalism ideology from the state perspective. After the New Order outbreak (1998), civics and history were not being main subjects at school. For several times, there was degradation of nationalism among the student of Indonesia. Since 2013, the Indonesian Minister of Education and Cultural introducing the “Character Education” to increase nationalism for the students from elementary to senior high school. The problem was the method of implementation was not good. Thus, this research tried to make a new model to teach nationalism for the students at elementary schools by considering the weakness of the factual teaching models. The results showed that the character education for teaching nationalism at the elementary schools was varied and non-standard. Nationalism-based character education at elementary schools had not been managed properly as a part of school management. In addition, the research findings showed that internalization of nationalism for the students was determined by the effectiveness of the enculturation management model. Moreover, the results of this study may be applied and developed in order to create students’ nationalism in Indonesia through the enculturation process. The process would succeed after the school management was involved in applying that habituation in the school environment.
The Journal of Social Studies Education in Asia
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The International Social Studies Assosiation
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Graduate School of Education