忍耐論 : その倫理的な位置
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An Essay on Perseverance : Its Ethical Position
"Temperance" is defined as simply restraining pleasure. Unpleasantness or pain, which can control the natural emotional state, are not the objects of temperance. The supernatural restraint of enduring pain is achieved by "perseverance". In Aristotle's concrete analysis of temperance, he refers not only to restraint, but also to perseverance. Perseverance seems similar to virtue, but cannot be categorized as a virtue. Justice or temperance is always recognized as a virtue. For example, in the case of buying sex, if justice or temperance is executed by the person who intends to buy sex, he will be able to reject this unethical action. The character of perseverance is different; the person who intends to buy sex can bear any pains (headache or cold weather etc.) so that he can achieve his immoral goal. Therefore perseverance is not suitable to be categorized as a virtue. As a rule of nature, all animals including human beings want to avoid pain or unpleasantness. But, if necessary, human beings can confront pains with perseverance in order to endure them. With perseverance, humanity can achieve enormous success. Perseverance is regarded as 'good' when natural pain or pleasure can be controlled by perseverance to execute benign intentions. However, enduring some pains with perseverance to achieve malignant intentions is not regarded as good. Nevertheless, it remains the case that a good perseverance can be a decisive factor for the success of human life.
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Graduate School of Letters