Quantitative Evaluation of Pain during Electrocutaneous Stimulation using a Log-Linearized Peripheral Arterial Viscoelastic Model
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In clinical practice, subjective pain evaluations, e.g., the visual analogue scale and the numeric rating scale, are generally employed, but these are limited in terms of their ability to detect inaccurate reports, and are unsuitable for use in anesthetized patients or those with dementia. We focused on the peripheral sympathetic nerve activity that responds to pain, and propose a method for evaluating pain sensation, including intensity, sharpness, and dullness, using the arterial stiffness index. In the experiment, electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and photoplethysmograms were obtained, and an arterial viscoelastic model was applied to estimate arterial stiffness. The relationships among the stiffness index, self-reported pain sensation, and electrocutaneous stimuli were examined and modelled. The relationship between the stiffness index and pain sensation could be modelled using a sigmoid function with high determination coefficients, where R2 ≥ 0.88, p < 0.01 for intensity, R2 ≥ 0.89, p < 0.01 for sharpness, and R2 ≥ 0.84, p < 0.01 for dullness when the stimuli could appropriately evoke dull pain.
This work was supported by the Center of Innovation Program from Japan Science and Technology Agency.
Supplementary information accompanies this paper at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21223-1.
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Graduate School of Engineering
Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences