Leucine/glutamine and v-ATPase/lysosomal acidification via mTORC1 activation are required for position-dependent regeneration
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n animal regeneration, control of position-dependent cell proliferation is crucial for the complete restoration of patterned appendages in terms of both, shape and size. However, detailed mechanisms of this process are largely unknown. In this study, we identified leucine/glutamine and v-ATPase/lysosomal acidification, via mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, as effectors of amputation plane-dependent zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. mTORC1 activation, which functions in cell proliferation, was regulated by lysosomal acidification possibly via v-ATPase activity at 3 h post amputation (hpa). Inhibition of lysosomal acidification resulted in reduced growth factor-related gene expression and suppression of blastema formation at 24 and 48 hpa, respectively. Along the proximal-distal axis, position-dependent lysosomal acidification and mTORC1 activation were observed from 3 hpa. We also report that Slc7a5 (L-type amino acid transporter), whose gene expression is position-dependent, is necessary for mTORC1 activation upstream of lysosomal acidification during fin regeneration. Furthermore, treatment with leucine and glutamine, for both proximal and distal fin stumps, led to an up-regulation in cell proliferation via mTORC1 activation, indicating that leucine/glutamine signaling possesses the ability to change the position-dependent regeneration. Our findings reveal that leucine/glutamine and v-ATPase/lysosomal acidification via mTORC1 activation are required for position-dependent zebrafish fin regeneration.
This study was supported by grants from Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the JSPS (KAKENHI JP15J05983) to K.T.
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Graduate School of Science