Havelok the Daneの二人称代名詞に関して
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On the Second Personal Pronouns in Havelok the Dane
My aim in this paper is to examine all the instances of the second personal pronouns in Havelok the Dane, one of the metrical romances popular in England between 1200 and 1500, written in rhyming couplet in the Northern Midland dialect of English circa 1,300, and to make clear how their singular and plural forms are used.
In Chapter I, I make a general survey of the developing process of the second personal pronouns. In Chapter II, I set out all the instances of the second personal pronouns in a list. In Chapter III, the list is examined thoroughly.
The conclusions are as follows: Firstly, when a high-ranking person (or a superior) addresses a low-ranking one (or an inferior), the singular forms are exclusively used. Secondly, any speaker, regardless of his or her rank, addresses more than one hearer in the plural forms. Thirdly, ye is not used as the objective singular or plural in Havelok, while you appears neither for the nominative ye nor for the objective or nominative singular. Lastly, when someone addresses another in the plural forms, they are mostly used by an inferior to a superior, in order to request permission, beg one's life, or implore forgiveness.
Studies in European and American Culture
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Departmental Bulletin Paper
Departmental Bulletin Papers
Graduate School of Social Sciences