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ID 32272
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title alternative
On the Second Personal Pronouns in Havelok the Dane
creator
Sato, Tetsuzo
NDC
English
abstract
My aim in this paper is to examine all the instances of the second personal pronouns in Havelok the Dane, one of the metrical romances popular in England between 1200 and 1500, written in rhyming couplet in the Northern Midland dialect of English circa 1,300, and to make clear how their singular and plural forms are used.

In Chapter I, I make a general survey of the developing process of the second personal pronouns. In Chapter II, I set out all the instances of the second personal pronouns in a list. In Chapter III, the list is examined thoroughly.

The conclusions are as follows: Firstly, when a high-ranking person (or a superior) addresses a low-ranking one (or an inferior), the singular forms are exclusively used. Secondly, any speaker, regardless of his or her rank, addresses more than one hearer in the plural forms. Thirdly, ye is not used as the objective singular or plural in Havelok, while you appears neither for the nominative ye nor for the objective or nominative singular. Lastly, when someone addresses another in the plural forms, they are mostly used by an inferior to a superior, in order to request permission, beg one's life, or implore forgiveness.
journal title
Studies in European and American Culture
issue
Issue 10
start page
75
end page
94
date of issued
2003-10-01
publisher
広島大学大学院社会科学研究科国際社会論専攻
ncid
language
jpn
nii type
Departmental Bulletin Paper
HU type
Departmental Bulletin Papers
DCMI type
text
format
application/pdf
text version
publisher
department
Graduate School of Social Sciences
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