ノルマン征服後のイングランド教会 : アングロ=ノルマン聖職者をめぐる「聖」と「俗」
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English Church after the Norman Conquest : Sanctity and Secularity in the Anglo-Norman Clergy
General history of Europe
This paper consists of two parts. The first part reveals the close relationship betwen the king and the bishops during the Anglo-Norman Period. The bishops were expected to offer "secular service", as the talented administrative officials, to the king. They were also imposed military duty to provide the decided number of knights. In the military milieu, some of the bishops were themselves engaged in such military actions as suppression campaign against the rebellion, and in building of castles.
The paper then deals with the relationship between bishops and their cathedral chapters. After the Norman Conquest, the high ecclesiastical posts were open to young and ambitious Norman clerics. They were recruited by bishop's patronage and nepotism (local and family connections). Two examples of promotion channels are indicated ; the Bec, Caen and Canterbury group and the Bayeux group.
The second part discusses the behaviors of the clergy at the lower level as well as the prelates. Analyzing the decrees of church councils during the reign of each Anglo-Norman king, this paper shows how the programs of church reform were reflected among the council decrees. Three main themes of the reform were prohibitions of simony, clerical marriage and lay investiture. Historical changes of each theme are traced.
The office of archdeacon is essential to be examined to understand the reorganization of church administration system after the Norman Conquest. Having a territorial archdeaconry under his direction, archdeacon supervised parish priests in the diocese. The promotion process of the archdeacon is discussed and three sources are pointed out. They are royal chaplains, clerics under episcopoal patronage and sons of married archdeacons.
In conclusion, the definition of social orders was still being made during the Anglo-Norman Period. For example, religious people ware also expected to participate in military actions in some way. But it was the period when the people certainly started to make separation between the sanctity and secularity in the clergy.
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