留学生の頭脳循環の特徴と課題 : ドイツ留学生の進路選択に係る影響要因の分析と日本への示唆
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Characteristics and Issues of Brain Circulation of International Students : Analysis of Influencing Factors of Students’ Choices in Germany and Implication for Japan
In order to strengthen the knowledge-based economy, many countries compete with each other for a talented and skilled workforce. One of the effective and efficient ways to recruit skilled workforce is to recruit them from international students who study in their countries. Many countries take measures to attract and integrate the international students into their societies. Retention of former international students in study-destination countries was once called brain drain but recently has been referred to brain circulation, considering their information dissemination and frequent move to their home countries. The pattern of their brain circulation will be affected by various factors including international student and skilled migration policies. In this paper, a model is constructed to analyze the characteristics of brain circulation of international students, focusing on the influencing factors of international students’ choices at the time of study abroad, employment and change of workplace. Germany was selected as a case study country, considering its robust increase of international students and the similarity with Japan, such as non-English speaking, an aging population and need of a skilled workforce.
As a result of the analysis, it was found out that recent development of skilled migration policy had a positive impact on the increase of international students and their integration into German societies. 56% of former international students who had studied in German HEIs from 2005 to 2013 remain in Germany in 2013. More than 40% of them majored in STEM fields. Their integration into German society meets the need for STEM human resources. One of the pull factors of employment in Germany is the attractive working environment with good communication among staff members and appropriate work load.
About 44 % of international graduates of Japanese HEIs found employment in Japan in 2014. According to a survey, one third of them plan to change their workplace within five years and 45% hope to work for the overseas branches in the future. More brain circulation of international students is realized in Japan than in Germany. However, considering the population decline and the shortage of a skilled workforce, Japan needs to formulate a comprehensive skilled immigration policy and to prepare a more attractive working environment for foreigners, including former international students. It will also be necessary to strengthen the recruitment of international students majoring in science and engineering, whose percentage is only 18.6% although these fields are considered to be one of the strengths of Japanese HEIs and industry.
Daigaku ronshu: Research in higher education
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