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ID 33838
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title alternative
Putnam's Social Capital Index is flawed by the population size effect : On the evidence for Cultural Embeddedness in Social Capital. <Articles>
creator
subject
Social Capital
Social Capital Index (SCI)
Cultural embeddedness
Non-profit organization
regression analysis
Regression-based score (R-score)
NDC
Economics
abstract
A previous report (Kusakabe, 2011, in Japanese) warned about an interpretation of a scatter diagram with coordinates expressed in the percentages or per capita data. Since most of the social indicators obey the Law of Power Function (Kusakabe, 2011), the scatter diagram of such indicaters in terms of ratio (percentage or per capita) inevitably shows positive or negative spurious correlations in cross section data analysis, irrespective of the causation. These spurious correlations are induced by the population size effect. Here, I will critically examine Putnam's Social Capital Index (SCI) in “Bowling Alone, Part 4." Putnam's SCI is highly correlated with the population size (Fig.12; R=-0.487**). Path analysis shows clear effect of population size on Putnam's SCI (Fig. 15(2)). Thus, Putnam's SCI inevitably induces both spurious correlations with most of the various social indicators and strong bias in his estimates for Social Capital Index. However, if we exclude the population size effect from Putnam's SCI using a regression method,the resulting regression residuals (adjusted SCI or the Regression-based score, R-score, defined by Kusakabe 2002a,b,c in Japanese) almost coincide with a Regression-based score of the number of nonprofit organizations in the United States (Fig.16(1),(2), R=0.663**).

Both of the Regression-based scores of Putnam's SCI(adjusted SCI) and those of NPOs significantly correlate with the Regression-based scores of murders (Fig.20(1),21(1); R=-0.776**and -0.605**, respectively). Path analyses on both Putnam's adjusted SCI and R-score for NPOs clearly show the strong effect on the R-score for murders (Fig.20(2),21(2); pass coefficient, -0.776** and -0.605**, respectively). These results disclose firm evidences for “cultural embeddedness" of Social Capital in the United States. Thus, Social Capital, indeed, can be measurable with these Regression -based scores for the number of nonprofit organizations or Putnam's adjusted SCI (Regression-based SCI score).

The revised version of Putnam's barometric map of America's Social Capital (Figure 25) is successfully presented in this study in terms of R-score for nonprofit organizations in the United States of America.
description
2013年12月17日PDFファイル更新
journal title
Bulletin of the Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University. II, Studies in environmental sciences
volume
Volume 7
start page
13
end page
41
date of issued
2012-12-31
publisher
広島大学大学院総合科学研究科
issn
1881-7696
ncid
SelfDOI
language
jpn
nii type
Departmental Bulletin Paper
HU type
Departmental Bulletin Papers
DCMI type
text
format
application/pdf
text version
publisher
rights
Copyright (c) 2012 Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University. All rights reserved.
department
Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences
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