shinririnsho_11_86.pdf 5.85 MB
Correation between rumination and reflection in self-focus, and self-efficacy, self-esteem and depression
The relationships of rumination and reflection with self-focus, se1f-efficacy, self-esteem and depression, as well as gender differences in these relationships were investigated. Results indicated that women ruminated more than men and that men reflected more than women. Moreover, reflection had a negative effect on depression in men, whereas it had no effect on depression in women. Previous research has suggested that reflection does not have an effect in alleviating depression. Results of this study indicated that rumination had a positive effect on depression without regard to sex. However, rumination had a negative influence on self-efficacy and self-esteem in both sexes. It is concluded that negative and persistent ruminations lowers the self-efficacy and self-esteem.
Bulletin of training and research center for clinical psychology
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Departmental Bulletin Paper
Departmental Bulletin Papers
Graduate School of Education