The Relationship Between Test Anxiety, Working Memory and Expressive Writing Interventions
This paper reviewed the resent research about the behavioral and cognitive effects of negative emotions on performance. The relationship between negative emotions (e.g., test anxiety, pressure-induced worry, and stereotype threat), working memory, emotional regulation, and short expressive writing interventions was considered. The following suggestions were acquired: (1) negative emotions temporarily decrease the capacity of working memory to affect the task performances during the test situations; (2) maladaptive emotional regulation decreases working memory capacity; (3) reappraisal is an adaptive and effective emotional regulation strategy for handling negative emotions in testing situations; and (4) short expressive writing facilitates reappraisal and improves temporary working memory capacity if the individuals felt negative emotions during the test situation. Short benefits-focused writing is another effective intervention for managing negative emotions during test situations; this strategy could alleviate younger people’s test anxiety. However short expressive writing is not necessarily usually effective for handling negative emotions, could be effective under some conditions. Future studies are necessary to identifying these specific conditions, including age, context, task types, and instances of anxiety.
Bulletin of the Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University. Part 3, Education and human science
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Departmental Bulletin Paper
Departmental Bulletin Papers
Graduate School of Education