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ID 18515
file
title alternative
The Origin of the German School Report
creator
Urabe, Masashi
subject
通信簿
ドイツ
歴史研究
School Report
Germany
Historical study
NDC
Education
abstract
This paper examines the origin and subsequent development of the German school report (Schulzeugnisse) with a particular focus on how it was first initiated. Several scholars assert that the current structure of the German school report is rooted in the 16th century, when the Reformation was launched by Martin Luther. The religious confrontation between the Catholic and the Protestant reconstructed the school system in Germany. The German school report has two intrinsic dimensions: as a certifying document (Zeugnisse) and as a grading document (Zensuren/Noteri). The earliest certificate was provided as the "Certificate for Charity" (Benefizienzeugnisse) in order to allow poor children to attend schools operated by the Protestant states. On the other hand, Catholic Jesuit schools adopted a competitive evaluation system to motivate and encourage students, which led to the institutionalization of marks/grades system.
journal title
Bulletin of the Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University. Part. Ⅲ, Education and Human Science
issue
Issue 53
start page
159
end page
165
date of issued
2005-03-28
publisher
広島大学大学院教育学研究科
国立情報学研究所
issn
1346-5562
ncid
SelfDOI
language
jpn
nii type
Departmental Bulletin Paper
HU type
Departmental Bulletin Papers
DCMI type
text
format
application/pdf
text version
publisher
department
Graduate School of Education
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