言語の呪縛と解放 : ウィトゲンシュタインの哲学教育 <特集 言語と教育>
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Conceptual Captivity and Emancipation : Wittgenstein's Teaching of Philosophy <Special Issues : Language and Education>
It is said that Ludwig Wittgenstein is one of the most important linguistic philosophers in the twentieth century. Indeed, his contribution to the "Linguistic Turn" is prominent. His interest, however, is not in language itself but in the emancipation of his students and readers from pictures that have held them captive. The purpose of this paper is to understand the point of Wittgenstein's philosophy by considering how he frees them in teaching philosophy.
The paper firstly argues that Wittgenstein's philosophy is likely to be misunderstood even by major Wittgensteinian scholars, and that his philosophy should be characterized as edifying philosophy, one that Richard Rorty distinguishes from systematic philosophy.
The paper then discusses the purpose of Wittgenstein's philosophy and his philosophical methods. While he held a consistent concept of philosophy from the early to the later periods, he changed his view on philosophical methods. The paper finds a connection between two periods by elaborating on the "elucidating" function of his philosophy, and his idea of an "overview" as a philosophical technique. It shows that Wittgenstein's philosophy is motivated by his pedagogical concerns about the emancipation of his students and readers from their conceptual captivity that causes philosophical confusions.
Finally this paper examines closely Wittgenstein's practice of teaching philosophy. It reconstructs his teaching in his class by using his students' memoirs, and analyses his Philosophical Investigations in terms of the idea of teaching as a philosophical technique of emancipation. His teaching in the classroom and his writings have some common features such as a dialogical style, presenting imaginary examples one after another, and encouraging students or readers to think by themselves. It is concluded that readers of Wittgenstein are expected to see beyond his teaching by learning from him how to emancipate themselves.
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Graduate School of Education