前5世紀におけるアテーナイ植民者の市民権 : その両義性をめぐって
Citizenship of Athenian Colonists in the Fifth Century B. C. : its dual aspects
General history of Europe
At the end of the sixth century B.C., the Athenians began to establish colonies. This fact may indicate that the Athenian colonization is the starting point of a new era of Greek colonization. For approximately 200 years thereafter, the Athenians continued at intervals to establish colonies broadly along the northern shore from the Black Sea to Thracia, on the islands of the Aegean Sea, and on the southern tip of the Italian peninsula by the Adrian Sea.
This Athenian colonization had, indeed, characteristics basically common to the other Greek colonies, but they had a unique character as well This unique has been said to lie in the fact that although the typical Greek colonies "apoikia" forfeit their citizenship in the mother city, the Athenian colonies kept it. These Athenian colonies and the relation to the mother city, which was strengthened by maintaining citizenship in the mother city, have been called "cleruchia" by scholars, and recognized as one method of building an empire, i. e. "military colonies".
There is no doubt that the Athenian colonies were used to establish an empire, but a question arises whether citizenship of the Athenian colonists was alternatively either forfeited or kept. This paper recognizes the citizenship of the Athenian colonists, not as a programmed alternative but as that having dual aspects ; both cutting off from the mother city and binding to the mother city, depending on the circumstances. Firstly, materials on the citizenship of the Athenian colonists will be examined and the lack of an alternative will be pointed out. Secondly, how the lack of an alternative has been understood by scholars will be shown and the unsolved contradictions will be pointed out. There are three points ; 1. Some colonists were notcalled Athenians, the Lemnians for example. This could mean that they were the citizens of the colony. 2. The colonists belonged to their original tribes and demes in Athens. This may indicate that they were Athenians. 3. In fact, they were able to return to their mother city and function as Athenian citizens. Finally, the contradiction will be solved by examining the inscription of Naupactian colonists from the East Lokris in about 460 B.C. (ML20) indicating the relation between these three contradictory factors.
In conclusion, citizenship of the Athenian colonists in the fifth century B. C. must be separated into two groups ; one is that of colonists establishing a new polis and the other is that of colonist not establishing a new polis. The colonists of the latter were called "Athenians" and recognized as Athenians living abroad. However, those in the former category were called "Lemnians" for example. This means that they became citizens of their own colony in order to engage in the practical needs for their new polis.
In this aspect, they were separated from their mother city. At the same time, they belonged to their original tribes and demes in Athen. This was not nominal, but a proof that they would be Athenian citizens again in future after returning to their mother city. In this aspect, they were connected to their mother city. The main purpose of their connection might be maintenance of an interchangeable land tenure between the colony and mother city. Actually, they returned to their mother city and were able to become Athenians again by declaring at the assembly of the demes to which they belonged in Athen, and being recognized by other members of the demes.
The factor which made possible this manner of recognition was its small size.
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Graduate School of Letters