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Archaeological Study on the Dating of Introduction and the Trade of the Chinese Casting Iron Tools in the Yayoi Period, Japan
General history of Japan
1. Dating the Oldest Iron Tools in the Yayoi Period of Japan
It has been thought that the Yayoi culture had iron tools from the beginning of the Yayoi period and the oldest iron tools were introduced from the Western Han dynasty(206 BC-24 AD) of ancient China. But, In May 2003, the National Museum of Japanese History announced that the beginning of the Yayoi period was dated back to 500 years earlier than it had previously been thought. The earliest iron tool would be a wrong one, because the Western Zhou Dynasty (11th century BC to 771 BC) has scarcely any iron tools.
So, my empirical study is making observation about many iron objects in the early and earlier middle Yayoi period. Consequently, It is proved that the iron objects in the early Yayoi period is almost little or nothing, and in the beginning of the use of iron implements of the earlier middle Yayoi period, fragments or debris of iron casting hoes in the Warring state period (480 BC to 221 BC in China) were introduced, and grinded them into small knives to reuse in the western Japan.
2. Using Computed Tomography (CT) for Ancient Iron Objects
My second research is using CT for these iron objects and determining whether these were manufactured by forging or casting. Because casting iron hoe were produced in large scale in the Warring state period, and declined producing by Han dynasty. It is also proved that almost all iron objects in the beginning of middle Yayoi period were casting one, in turn.
3. Commodities and Gift on Iron Tools
Consequence of my research, late Yayoi period, in Kyushu(九州)region, many iron commodities (such as axes, sickles and hoes used for agriculture, etc) were produced, on the other hand, in Coastal area of Sea of Japan(日本海沿岸), where the gifts such as, long iron sword were introduced, and between these areas, their chiefs thought to managed in different political economy, the former was“staple finance", the latter was “wealth finance"(Earle 1997: 205).
Earle, Timothy 1997, How Chiefs Come to Power: the Political Economy in Prehistory. Stanford University Press.
1. 弥生時代の初期鉄器 (野島 永) 1
2. 弥生時代における鉄器鋳造をめぐって (野島 永) 35
3. 弥生時代における鋳造鉄斧の流通について (加藤 徹) 41
4. 弥生時代鋳造鉄器の意味をめぐって (野島 永) 77
5. 弥生・古墳時代における鉄器文化 (野島 永) 89
6. 鋳造実験とその成果 (野島 永 ・ 加藤 徹) 103
7. X線CTスキャナによる金属製考古資料の調査 (鳥越 俊行) 115
8. 広島湾岸地域の弥生時代にいたる打製石器石材流通をめぐって (竹広 文明) 117
9. 総括 127
研究期間:平成17-19年度 ; 研究種目:基盤研究C ; 課題番号:17520520
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Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Papers
Graduate School of Letters