Gene Expression and Protein Synthesis in Mitochondria Enhance the Duration of High-Speed Linear Motility in Boar Sperm
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Hoque, S. A. Masudul
mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation
sperm motility pattern
Sperm motility patterns are continuously changed after ejaculation to fertilization in the female tract. Hyperactivated motility is induced with high glucose medium in vitro or the oviduct fluids in vivo, whereas sperm maintain linear motility in the seminal plasma or the uterine fluids containing low glucose. Therefore, it is estimated that sperm motility patterns are dependent on the energy sources, and the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is activated to produce ATP in low glucose condition. To elucidate these hypotheses, boar sperm was incubated in different energy conditions with the transcription and translation inhibitors in vitro. Sperm motility parameters, mitochondrial activity, ATP level, gene expression and protein synthesis were analyzed. Sperm progressive motility and straight-line velocity were significantly increased with decreasing glucose level in the incubation medium. Moreover, the mitochondrial protein turnover meaning transcription and translation from mitochondrial genome in sperm is activated during incubation. Incubation of sperm with mitochondrial translation inhibitor (D-chloramphenicol) suppressed mitochondrial protein synthesis, mitochondrial activity and ATP level in sperm and consequently reduced the linear motility speed, but not the motility. Thus, it is revealed that the mitochondrial central dogma is active in sperm, and the high-speed linear motility is induced in low glucose condition via activating the mitochondrial activity for ATP generation.
This work was supported in part by Livestock Promotional Funds of Japan Racing Association (JRA) grant no. H30-279 and by Hiroshima Cryopreservation Service Co., grant no. H30-1 (to MS). ZZ was supported by China Scholarship Council during a visit of “Zhendong Zhu” to Hiroshima University (#CSC201706300110).
The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2019.00252/full#supplementary-material
Frontiers in Psychology
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Copyright © 2019 Zhu, Umehara, Okazaki, Goto, Fujita, Hoque, Kawai, Zeng and Shimada. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Graduate School of Biosphere Science