Hiroshima Peace Science Volume 5
1982 発行

社会開発と農耕文化複合 : 進化的、生態学的アプローチ (1)

Social development and agricultural complex : Evolutional and ecological approach (1)
Mori, Yuji
According to the theory of Sasuke Nakao (1966, 1967), there are four agricultural complexes in the world different in their origins : (I) agriculture of roots and tubers, (2) agriculture of savanna, (3) agriculture of the Mediterranean, and (4) agriculture of the New Continent. Fig. 1 shows their places of origin, and routes of propagation. These four agricultural complexes whose origin was very old have developed both horizontally and vertically, but still preserve their original patterns in present days.Horizontal development of agriculture means the cultivation of weed and wild grass, and introduction of useful plants from other agricultural complexes. As a result, more useful and better nourished plants were cultivated. Fig. 2 shows horizontal development of agriculture in East Asia. The agricultural complex of lucidophyllous forest zone is a complex of agricultures of roots and tubers, savanna and the Mediterranean. The zone spreads from the Himalayan area, through south-west and east of China, to Japan. Agriculture of roots and tubers, the oldest in the origin, introduced useful plants from that of savanna and the Mediterranean as is shown in Fig. 2. Vertical development of agriculture means the integration of agriculture with cattle breeding. The Mediterranean agriculture domesticated many animals such as cows, horses, sheep, and so on. Such combination of agriculture and cattle breeding not only provided labour, but also fertilized the soil by the excrements of animals, and made human life fully nourished. The Mediterranean agriculture, which developed north of the Alps, made a full vertical development, and as is well known, such development provided the basis of the formation of national economy. Agricultural complex is a basis of social development. But it is only when an agricultural complex has developed both vertically and horizontally that it can function as a basis of social development. Many, if not all, civilizations have been built upon the foundation of their own agricultural complexes. And t