Hiroshima Peace Science Volume 40
2019-03 発行

“東側の原子力” : 1960〜1980年代、原子力分野における旧ソ連邦から東欧“同盟”諸国への科学技術協力について

“Atomic Energy in the Eastern Bloc”: On the Soviet Aids in the Field of Atomic Energy to Its East-European Allies in the1960s - 1980s
hps_40_1.pdf 1.45 MB
In 1960s the Soviet Union and its allies in the Eastern Europe began to rush the constructions of many nuclear power stations. This paper clarifies that a rapid growth of nuclear energy production during the following two decades in the “Eastern Block” was needed due to the Soviet Unionʼs serious energy crisis caused by the erroneous choice of energy sources in the national policy, and, meanwhile, the Eastern Germany, Czechoslovakia and other East-European allies were so eager to introduce nuclear energy due to their poverty in quality and quantity of their own energy sources. The Soviet Union exported only light water reactors to its allies, despite it developed nuclear energy with its particular type of graphite reactors domestically. This paper also aims to make clear the overall framework of the light water reactor export from the Soviet Union to its allies in the Eastern Europe, including the organization of a unique nuclear fuel cycle, doubled for both of the graphite reactors and the light water reactors, and the demand pressure on the sole light water reactor manufacturer.
本稿は、平成28~30年度日本学術振興会科学研究費補助金・基盤研究(C)「“ 東側” 諸国における原子力研究の国際化―1950年代ソ連=東独間科学交流を中心に」[研究代表者―市川 浩:課題番号16K01164]、および、平成30~ 32年度基盤研究(B)「放射性物質の政治文化史に関する国際比較」[研究代表者―木戸衛一:課題番号18H0070101]による研究成果の一部である。
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