The aim of this paper is to clarify how peace education is performed at schools in Germany, and what is the peace consciousness of German students in gymnasiums. The viewpoint of this analysis is what war memory, by whom and how does it pass to the students. How does the memory influence students’ attitude toward war and peace.
Germany and Japan are the same defeated nations in the Second World War. Now the both nations are internationally regarded as highly peaceful ones. But the rates of the experience to have heard about the last war from their family members (parents or grandparents) are different among the student of both countries.
The knowledge acquired by this research through interviews and questionnaire is as follows: (1) German students have high motivation toward peace building. However, their anti-war peace consciousness is not so high as Japanese students. (2) Education for reflections on the Nazis era is carried out in German history and Holocaust education at schools. (3) The ruins of the Nazis’ time are preserved and many explanation panels on that time are installed on streets, which are used in extracurricular studies. (4) 20 years after the reunification of Germany have passed now, the influences of the former east and west blocks have hardly remained in peace consciousness of the students.
The students study the history of German aggression like Holocaust and Nazis’ invasion, but it can become a pride for them not as a shame to Germany. For the students, such education is regarded as a useful risk management to become democratic German citizens not to form the people of a totalitarians country like the former Nazis days.