This article examines the issue of enhancement of ownership of local society for peacebuilding from the historical, theoretical and policy-oriented perspectives. First, this article describes how the principles of local ownership emerged as an important principle in history of international society and what significance it has in the framework of contemporary international society. It then identifies that the principle of local ownership for long-term peace has crucial importance for peacebuilding, since contemporary international order is based upon the assumption that each sovereign state has autonomous capacity to maintain its own order. Next, this article seeks examine theoretical pillars of local ownership in peacebuilding. While the contents of ownership are usually said to be vague, will, capacity, authority and responsibility are useful concepts to identify what ownership ought to mean. Third, this article examines how the principle of local ownership is discussed in the field of peacebuilding. Then, it identifies the limit of the way international organizations adopt the principle of local ownership.