Hiroshima Peace Science Volume 28
2006 発行

国王独裁制による南スラヴ人統一国家維持の試み : 1934年の野党指導者との交渉を中心に

The negotiation among King Aleksandar and opposition leaders in 1934 : The last attempt of consolidating the South Slav nation state through Monarchist dictatorship
King Aleksandar of Yugoslavia declared the introduction of monarchist dictatorship on January 6, 1929. This was the last effort of holding Yugoslavia and making it into one nation state during the interwar period. The King justified his decision because of parliamentary paralysis and his country's feared disintegration at that time. However, his dictatorship also could not resolve the questions the parliamentary system left. Among those the Croat question was the most important. So that, domestic political situation in this country remained unstable. The King's dictatorship had two weaknesses. One was that it lacked a strong support among the broad mass of people. The other was that the King did not have so much a strong standing international relations as he had at home. The regime suffered from the pressure from abroad, particularly from France which wanted its Yugoslav protege to stabilize internal political situation. On the other hand, Italy, which knew domestic problems of this country well, showed arrogant attitudes making territorial pretension. The leadership of the Croat Peasant Party, headed by V. Ma?ek, opted for the tactic of passive resistance. Such a tactic was based on the conviction that the regime of the dictatorship would at last compromise itself in the area of Croatia and that on the hand, the position of the Croat Peasant Party would be strengthened to such an extent that ruling circles of the dictatorship would be forced to capitulate before the demands of the Croats. After the proclamation of the dictatorship, two oppositional centers were formed. Belgrade was the center of opposition gathered around the leadership of opposition Radicals, Democrats and the Peasant Party. They were joined by the leadership of Yugoslav Moslem Organization and Slovene People's Party. Zagreb was the base of the Croat Peasant Party and the Independent Democratic Party which had formed a political coalition called the Peasant Democratic Coalition. Within the Belgrade opposition center, the Democrats were