The main purpose of this article is to examine peace education in China and to discuss China's attitude concerning peace and war. The term 'peace education (hepingjiaoyu)' does not exist in the curriculum of Chinese education. However education relating to peace can be found in political education, ideological education and in other subjects. We can call it 'Chinese peace education.' Patriotism and internationalism constitute the characteristic features in the purpose and method. They reflect the modern history of China's national liberation war and the principles of socialism. It is more important for Japanese people to know that the main part of the 'Chinese war of liberation' means the 'anti-Japanese war'. The fact of Japanese aggression and the spirit of resistance of the patriotic Chinese masses are tought in each subject, especially history and language. Chinese peace education begins with teaching the resistance and victory of the anti-Japanese war. This attitude toward peace and war that teaches their own proud history of a liberation war, is much different from that of Japan which only teaches the disaster of war by telling the students tragic wartime experiences. As for China it can be said that this strong nationalism and the facts of the Japanese aggression in the past make it difficult to accept the insistence of Japanese peace education which is based on opposition to nuclear weapons and disarmament. So in order to internationalize Japanese peace education, it is necessary to understand the Chinese attitudes towards peace and war, and to understand various significant difference between China and Japan.