Hiroshima Studies in Language and Language Education Issue 9
2006-03-31 発行

日本のドイツ語教育におけるCALLの創成期 : 1990年から2000年を中心に

The Eary Period of CALL in German Education in Japan (1990-2000)
The purpose of this paper is to give a retrospective sketch on the early period of CALL in German education in Japan, which covers the time from ca. 1990 to 2000. Based on the work of Levy (1997), the historical development of CALL in Europe and America can be divided into the following three periods: 1. 1960-1980: The period of behavioristic CAI, based on the networks of mainframe computers; 2. 1980-1995: The period of communicative CALL, based on personal computers and handmade programs developed by teacher programmers; 3. 1995-Present: The period of CALL learning projects, based on the Internet and CMC(computer-mediated communication). For a description of the historical development of CALL in German education in Japan, we can also use the same framework. However the history of CALL in German education in Japan barely was beginning in 1990 and has no long tradition such as in Europe and America. Therefore, happenings in the field of CALL which occurred over time in other countries often occurred simultaneously here in Japan. In particular, trends and happenings corresponding to those of the behavioristic CA1 period and to the communicative CALL period began in German education in Japan almost simultaneously, in around 1990. And instances corresponding to those in the period of CALL in project learning began soon afterwards, in the middle of the 1990's. Indeed, the advent of the Internet and its global spread was an explosive phenomenon. In our context, therefore, the framework above should not be understood as a periodical distinction of CALL practices but as a typological one. In this paper, trends in the field of CALL in German education in Japan are first classified into the three types above, and within each type individual cases are described chronologically. At the end of this paper, we consider the historical alteration of terminology from CA1 to CALL in German education in Japan, because it serves as a criterion for deepening the understanding of the concept of 'CALL' . Therefore, this paper consists..