Hiroshima Studies in Language and Language Education Issue 11
2008-03-31 発行


Developing a Scale of Unwillingness to Speak English
This article reports on the development of a scale to measure EFL learners' unwillingness to speak English. This study was conducted as part of the research project which aims to empirically validate the effects of classroom instruction involving SPM (Sentences-per-Minute) on reducing learners' unwillingness to speak English. Drawing on the model of Willingness to Communicate by Maclntyre, Clément, Dörnyei, and Noels (1998), unwillingness to speak English was conceived as comprising three factors, i.e., low perceived competence to speak English, anxiety, and avoidance of speaking English. Fifteen questionnaire items were devised, five items measuring each factor. This questionnaire was administered to 165 first-year university students who were enrolled in speaking classes at the time of this administration. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the model-data fit. The first model, with five items on each factor, did not yield high enough fit indices, thus, the model had to be modified. Some items were deleted, and consequently, a model in which each factor is measured by three items was tested and showed high fit indices. Therefore, this model was adopted. The factors' Cronbach's alphas were .76, .83, and .86, suggesting that they have high internal consistency and that they form reliable subscales.