We can point out some tendencies of city location in Japan at a glance. Moreover, there are many literatures of the location and size distribution of cities.
We try to examine some tendencies of structure of cities in view of the city size and the inter-city distance based on Japanese date. We define "nearest larger city" (NLC: the nearest city among ones which are larger than the size of own city). Then we have three results.
(1) We can indicate the structure of city hierarchy in Japan by linking NLCs.
(2) We can show the relationship between the distance from NLC and its rank as "rank-distance rule".
(3) The size of a city is specified by the inter-city distance and the size of NLC. A city is competitive in view of the inter-city distance between own city and its NLC, on the other hand, is complementary in view of the city size of NLC. Furthermore, a city is complementary in view of the inter-city distance between own city and its "nearest block-center city" or Tokyo.