The principal aim of the present study was to elucidate the characteristics of music cultivation in Kretzschmar’s work Musikalische Zeitfragen. Through an examination of Kretzschmar’s concept of “Volk,” the present study examines who was asked to be musical, what challenges they faced, and how improvements were attempted. The investigation revealed that Kretzschmar called for all German “Volk,” including “educated persons” and “the masses,” to be musical. Kretzschmar presented vocal music focused on the common goal of loving “music as an art of service” among the entire “Volk” of Germany, thereby setting “educated persons” a lofty task. In the reform of Kretzschmar, which sought to have “Volk assume the responsibility for German music art,” the role expected of “Volk” can be considered to have differed depending on the social group to which a person belonged.