The purpose of this study was to clarify the patient care and education system related to diabetes in Japan. Three thousand physicians who belonged to the Japan Diabetes Society were randomly selected. A questionnaire was sent to them and 605 responded (collection rate 20.2%). Items in the questionnaire included the number of beds in their hospitals, the presence of a specialized outpatient-unit and the staffing for diabetics care as structural indicators of the quality of medical care, assessment and treatment, contents of patient/family education and their follow-up system as process indicators, and treatment evaluation index as outcome indicators. The results showed that about 30% of respondents' hospitals and clinics had specialized units and staffing for diabetic outpatients, that they provided patient education for behavioral modification and social-psychological support in addition to basic life style guidance on diet and exercise. These findings were significantly related to the presence of approved specialized physicians and to the size of the hospital. About a half of their evaluation consisted of test data reflecting treatment results. To assure diabetic care and education quality, it was evident that placement of specialized staff was important, however, such staff were unevenly distributed. Developing community networks between big hospitals with specialized staff and clinics and small hospitals, as well as increasing the number of specialized outpatient units and staff in clinics and small hospitals is the next step.