The purpose of this research is to find patterns in the behavior of infants during immunization injections and to ascertain the care needed when dealing with infants at vaccination. The subjects were five infants (aged from 2 years 11 months to 3 years 8 months old) who received immunization injections for Japanese encephalitis. The data was collected using a video camera of a series of interactions between the subjects, parents, siblings, and the medical treatment staff from their arrival at the clinic to their departure. Semi-structured interviews with the parents were also used to obtain information about the background of the subjects.
As a result of inductive and descriptive analysis, the behavior of infants during immunization injections could be classified into three types. Infants of type I showed their dislike of the injection and cried before the prick of the needle at both the first and second injections. Infants of type II complained that it was painful and began to cry after the injection was over at both the first and second injections. Infants of type III said that it was painful at the prick of the needle but cried only during the second injection.
Infants could talk with others about the meaning and the method of the vaccination. They tried to bear with the discomfort even though they disliked it and wanted to cry.When they could not endure it, they cried with pain. Seeing the syringe increased their anxiety. There were also individual differences in the strength of their reaction.
Based on the infants' backgrounds and their behavior according to type, points relating to the care of infants during vaccination were enumerated as follows: 1) Child's determination to do his/her best. 2) Understand the infant's experience of pain and praise his/her endurance. 3) Consider methods of easing the pain. 4) Devise a method choosing the injection spot and for preparing the materials of the injection. 5) Individual assessment and correspondence.