Fifty-seven preterm infants and eleven infants in whom neonatal encephalopathy had been confirmed were examined by Dubowitz neurologic examination at term age. The results were compared based on their gestational age and birthweight, both of which are reported as factors which influence development. No influence of premature delivery and low weight was seen in preterm infants in the evaluated total score of the Dubowitz neurologic examination, and there was no difference in development at term age. There were significant differences in the scores in the categories of tone, reflexes, and behavior in the preterm infants compared with the neonatal encephalopathy infants. Moreover, no difference was seen in the score of the preterm infants and the neonatal encephalopathy infants in tone patterns and abnormal signs. Therefore, it is difficult to distinguish premature infants from abnormal infants in these categories. In this study, the total score reported by Dubowitz for preterm infants was lower than that for full-term infants, and the necessity for establishing a new standard for preterm infants is proposed.