Approach to the Subject
The poultry farming of layers in Japan has developed into the structural change in production under the high-growth booming economy. But the expansion of production has been lately placed under control according to the stagnation of demand for eggs. Then the poultry farmers began to vie with each other for supremacy about the poultry enterprises and the producing centers-concerned with the marketing of eggs. The poultry farmers have striven to systematization in order to implement the competitive power under the expansion of farm size and regional specialization in poultry industry.
There are typical types of systematization of poultry farms, such as the cooperative poultry farm, the aggregative poultry farm and the integrative poultry farm. The cooperative poultry farm is one of these types, but it only rarely favours its development, because it raises a problem to either the accommodation of the environmental conditions or the sufficiency of the organization of production, or to both of them.
Method of Study
In this paper the author has made an attempt to clarify the mechanism of development of the cooperative poultry farms by basing himself on the case study. The Higashiyama Sangyo agricultural partnership corporation referred to in this paper, has developed itself gradually during fourteen years as the whole cooperative farm.
To look into the developing steps of this cooperative farm, it was born as an private compound farm about twenty years ago, it achieved a first development by becoming a partial cooperative poultry farming Limited Company, then it changed into a whole cooperation Option Partnership, and finally into an Agricultural Partnership Corporation (100 thousand layers poultry farming).
The author has figured out the methods of approach for this subject as follows:
(1) the outline of development as regard to the management of poultry farm; (2) division of the stages of development of the cooperative poultry farm and the characteristics of each stage; (3) mechanism of development operated by ever new managerial behaviors; (4) results of the development operated by innovative managerial behaviors; (5) mechanism of development of the cooperative poultry farm.
The author has especially taken notice of the dynamic and energetic development which depended on the innovative managerial behariors, he has been done his best to make clear the problems by applying the theoretical model of dynamic development of the cooperative farm.
1. The conversion from cooperative poultry farm of the small holding system to the enterprising cooperative poultry farm has been realized on ground of various innovative managerial behaviors and a huge sum of capital investment based upon the organization of the corporation.
2. The whole cooperative farm has coordinated and integrated the activities of modernizing the farm management with the activities of strengthening the mutual aid system among members at its final matured stage. Furthermore, it has systematized throughly whole process of production, processing and marketing of the poultry products. It has resulted in the expansion of internal economies through the whole processes of the cooperative farm.
3. The enterprising cooperative poultry farm has effected this dynamic development basing itself upon various innovative managerial behaviors, throughout the settlement period, the development period and the matured period. The fundamental innovations in the aspects of technique of production, organization, correspondence of marketing and consciousness have given rise to the incidental innovations in the aspects of procurement of the production factors and preventive measures against bad smell due to disposing of chicken dropping, and these preceding innovations have in turn influenced various later innovations.
Furthermore these innovations have repeated again and again and through this big progress have been done for each stage of development.
4. Such dynamic development have not only repeated itself in succession in the management cycle, but also takes in the innovative managerial behaviors, excelling especially in discovery of new problems at the early stage, creative power of and execution. The management cycle rotates through discovery, counterplan and rediscovery.
5. These innovative managerial behaviors have been made possible by the practice of cooperative ideas which are the welfare of the organizers, the worth of their lives and the expansion of their abilities, they have given ample interplay for the efficiency of division of labor and efficiency of cooperative work.
Therefore the cooperative poultry farm developed into an enterprise of stronger competitive power based upon diversification of the management and systematization of production and marketing.