Journal of the Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Hiroshima University Volume 21 Issue 1・2
1982-12 発行


Forms and Factors of Animal Products Marketing in the early post-Meiji Years
Ono, Seishi
26-2037.pdf 1.76 MB
As far as the period after the Meiji era is concerned, at its begining marketing of animal products was formed in conlpliance with the properties of products as a public commodity and the amount of investment needed. The former factor depends basically on the divisibility and the preservation possibilities of the products. The latter is the capital needed for marketing and production.

1) Eggs are the most divisible and preservable of all the animal products. Also, hens can be kept with small finantial burdens. The initial form of laying hen farming is just to keep several hens free in the house and the yeard, and then to peddle eggs. Therefore, the characteristic of this farming is a locally limited marlcet.

2) Milk too is a very divisible goods, yet it is less presel-vable than eggs. For this reason a dairy man will try to find a location for his farm in the suburbs. Furthermore, a larger amount of initial investment is required, in fact a certain number of cows is needed to supply milk steadily all the year round. A barn relevant to the size of farm is necessary. Processing facilities such as bottle fillers are required too. Therefore practically the local market is held only by the milk enterprises. As for milk used for processing, such farm are usually situated in a more remote region. In fact the processing enterprise is mostry separated from milk production enterprises, because in this case a larger amount of capital is needed techniques are more specialized, calling for a new means of marketing. Thus the processor comes to intervene between the dairy farmer and the consumer, the farmers become conditioned by the processor's nlarket control.

3) Carcass of beef and pork has to be cut up promptly and sliced in portions. This is a crucial process in the meat market in regard to the unit of quantity at which the consumer buys and of the retailing before taint. For this reason, living animals are transported from the farm to the city. The slaughtering and dressing processes are all performed in the city. In this situation middlemen have greater influence in the meat market than the breeders themselves. For them usually the size of livestock keeping is small, and it is but a side-job of the farm household.

The initial marketing examined above has been modernized frorn imperfect competition to perfect one by farmers' grousing financial gains and by the encouragement of the government, trying to eliminate the middlemen. However, oligopolistic competition results from entrance of powerful commercial and processing companies. On the other hand, to simplify the market course, a supermarket directly aligns with a large scale farm or an agricultural cooperative. In addition, through its expansion the supermarket comes nearer to the buyer's market through the corelation of the supermarket and the producer. This transition is further supported by the technical development of transportation and preservation.