Recent studies examine how a smooth transition can be achieved from early childhood education to elementary school education. In early childhood education, direction targets are emphasized, and in elementary school, achievement goals are often emphasized. In elementary school, there is a difference in the balance between the achievement goals and the direction targets in Japanese language classes and mathematics classes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics in the interaction between teachers and first graders in these two classes.
In this paper, we observed the Japanese language and mathematics classes for the first grade from April to July, and collected some episodes of the interactions between teachers and children. These episodes were categorized according to subjects into those that focused on achievement goals versus direction targets.
As a result, it was found that there was a difference in interactions between teachers and children depending on the subjects and the type of achievement goal or direction target. In Japanese language classes, the interaction between teachers and children develops toward the goal according to the situation of children, while in mathematics classes, the interaction often develops toward achievement goals. When teachers talked to children in a way that gave them directions, they were more likely to learn a variety of knowledge and skills as well as content related to their achievement goals. The primary aspect of this paper was to clarify what children were learning at the beginning of elementary school from the perspectives of teacher-child interaction and subject content.