This study addresses the following two questions: how have living environment studies’ ideas about the qualities and abilities of developing children changed, and what is the social background underlying this change? It focuses on the content dealing with the home-life environment in courses of study, textbooks, and teachers’ guides. The analysis of the results revealed two findings. Firstly, the older belief that the learning method is what makes children acquire value norms has shifted to embrace the idea that one thinks and practices what one can do. Secondly, given that the goal is to raise children to be responsible family members, children themselves are being transformed in a way that leads to better lives for them. During such transformation, their self-awareness is enhanced. As a result, there have been changes in the roles of both school education and private education, as well as the relationship between these processes to develop children.