This study explores the eight-step process of problem solving in elementary school science textbooks, with a focus on inference and reasoning. The results showed that inferential ability can be developed by setting up the assumption or the hypothesis before the observation and experiment, and reasoning ability can be developed in discussion after the observation and experiment.
This study has four implications for textbook development. First, problems can be identified and set up using interrogative words. Second, inference can be developed by setting up the assumption or the hypothesis, and reasoning can be developed through discussion that refers back to the stage of identifying and setting up a problem. Third, observation and experimentation can be used as introductions when they are conducted just before the inference stage. Fourth, reasoning can be developed through discussion by making links with the observation and experiment and by assembling the results.