The purpose of this study is to make clear the principles and practices that support children's intellectual independence. In Japan, it comes more important to bring up children to think and to behave independently. In this report, I try to make clear the methods and materials that are useful to attain that purpose by analyzing the methods and materials that are used in Switzerland,especially in learning history. In Switzerland, children used to learn the history of their own country in primary school from 4.class to 6.class. And then in secondary school they learn the relation of the history of their own country and the history of all around the world. In the secondary school they learn the history by two aspects, the time and the space. By these two aspects children can learn that the subjects of making history are not the kinds of rules or necessities that man never can understand, but man himself. As the result, to make children to think and to behave independently, it is important for children to learn that the subjects of making history are themselves. And the principles to make children independently are there in this point.