This paper reports findings from a large-scale student survey on their learning behaviors, and a faculty survey on their practices and beliefs in teaching, both in Japan. It was found that the Japanese students’ time spent on learning fell substantially short of the required time prescribed by the Standards for the Establishment of Universities1. It was also found that a significant proportion of Japanese students have problems in motivation to learn, and the universities were unsuccessful in transforming them. However, some teaching practices were effective in affecting students’ learning behavior. Meanwhile, these results were found to be related to the orientation of pedagogy that Japanese professoriate have traditionally had. These observations suggest possible future changes in undergraduate education.